Broadacre

Key factors for maximising broadacre production

Key factors for maximising broadacre production

Nutritional problems in cereal, legume, and rapeseed are quite common and indicated by symptoms such as diminished shoot and root growth, rhizome or stolon production, stand density, and quality yield. It’s therefore very important for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and trace elements to be supplied at the right stage of the growth cycle.

The majority of Dual Chelate Products contain Patented Organic Activators, formally known as Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acid (CPPA) which is currently provided by Dual Chelate Fertilizer under Patent. CPPA contains a mixture of naturally occurring organic substances. Containing natural acids with tannins, plant growth regulators, stimulators and auxins, which are well suited for use in any seed, bulb and rooted plant known to mankind.

Nitrogen deficiency 

One of the most common deficiencies in broadacre cropping is Nitrogen. Nitrogen deficiency is commonly characterised by leaf yellowing, leaf tip die-back and a decrease in shoot density and tillering. Nitrogen deficiencies are commonly seen in sandy soils that have been heavily leached or waterlogged.

Nitrogen is the most important nutrient in cereal production. It is a component of many structural, genetic and metabolic compounds of plant cells. Nitrogen affects both crop yield and quality. It is a major component of chlorophyll — the green pigment in plants essential for photosynthesis (the process plants use to turn sunlight into energy, as carbohydrates). Nitrogen is the primary constituent of grain protein and oil content of canola. Care should be taken with the supply of nitrogen. Increasing the yield of grain has a diluting effect on the protein. This explains why in seasons of low yield (eg: dry seasons), a larger proportion of the crop is of higher protein percentage, whereas in seasons of high yielding grain, the quality is low. Nitrogen is typically applied pre-plant, with supplementary applications made at key times throughout the season.

Nitrogen is the most important nutrient in cereal production. It is a component of many structural, genetic and metabolic compounds of plant cells.

Application Benefits
Important for protein production and grain yield
Foliar spray is ideal for application at critical times
(eg: grain initiation and formation)
The use of streaming nozzles is also an ideal way
to apply in-crop Nitrogen
Recommended Treatments
Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Activated N41-0-0+ 0.05% ZnCPPA + Amino acid

PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY

Phosphorus deficiency is frequently characterised by older leaves developing a dark green colour that progresses to reddish-purple, wilting stand and reduced shoot and root growth during establishment.

Cereals require a readily available supply of phosphorus at all stages of growth, particularly in the early stages. Phosphorus is necessary for cell division, overall plant growth and root and shoot development. It is also involved with photosynthesis, energy transfer and movement of carbohydrates within the plant. Cereals low in phosphorus are often predisposed to damping off diseases such as Pythium. Phosphorus is generally applied at planting so it can be utilised in early growth. In some growing areas, pH or high amounts of calcium in the soil can tie up phosphorus. This means that although adequate Phosphorus soil levels may exist, it may not be plant available.

Phosphorus deficiencies are commonly seen in soils low in organic matter or high in sand content, highly weathered, iron-rich acid soils and calcareous soils.

RECOMMENDED TREATMENTS

Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Momentum ZnP0-18-0+ 14% ZnCPPA
Dual Grow FreeFos10-15-0 + 0.92% ZnCPPA + Kelp
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus B-Zn-Mo12-17-0 + 0.49% B, 2.10% Zn, 0.40% MoCPPA + Amino Acid
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus CoMoBo12-17-0 +2.79%B, 0.02% Co + 0.04% MoCPPA

Role OF ZINC

Zinc is associated with the formation of chlorophyll. It is also involved in several enzyme systems and is essential for protein synthesis. Zinc also has a key role in the functioning and biosynthesis of several hormones including auxin, the compound that regulates plant growth rate and development. It is important that cereals receive adequate zinc from an early age which is why seed dressings are considered to be an efficient method of delivering zinc to emerging plants. Zinc also plays a regulatory role in the uptake and efficient use of water. Being an immobile element, post-emergence zinc deficiency is best corrected via foliar spray.

RECOMMENDED TREATMENTS

Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Momentum ZnP0-18-2 + 14% ZnCPPA
Dual Force Zn10.00% ZnIDHA
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus B-Zn-Mo12-17-0 + 0.49% B, 2.10% Zn, 0.40% MoCPPA

Role of Copper

Copper is a common deficiency of cereals although it can occur in soils high in phosphorus. Copper is required for enzymatic reactions within the plant and is involved in the manufacturing of lignin which helps give plant cells their strength. It is also involved with several reactions that maintain the balance of hormones and plant defence mechanisms. Copper deficiency affects the amount of live pollen formed in cereals. As a result, plants that outwardly appear healthy can produce partially filled or even empty heads.

Role of Molybdenum

The primary function of molybdenum is to assimilate nitrogen within the plant. This involves the conversion of nitrates to ammonium, which is the first step in the synthesis of proteins. It has also been suggested that cereals low in molybdenum may be more prone to frost damage. Leaf margin chlorosis symptoms displayed in cereals are the result of a build-up of nitrate-nitrogen that has not been converted to ammonium. In this respect, the chlorosis and eventual necrosis of leaf margins are in fact toxic build-up of nitrates.

COPPER Treatments
Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Activated N41-0-0+ 0.05% ZnCPPA + Amino acid

Copper deficiency affects the amount of live pollen formed in cereals.

MOLYBDENUM TREATMENTS

Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus CoMoBo12-17-0 +2.79%B, 0.02% Co + 0.04% MoCPPA

ROLE OF MANGANESE

Manganese deficiency is not common in cereals but can occur during cool dry weather. Cereals grown in high pH calcareous soils are more prone to deficiencies. Manganese has several functions in the plant. It is closely associated with iron, copper and zinc as a catalyst in plant growth processes.

Manganese is necessary for photosynthesis and in the formation of other compounds required for plant metabolism. High manganese levels in plants may induce an iron deficiency and vice versa. Manganese also affects chlorophyll production and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism.

RECOMMENDED TREATMENTS

Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Dual Force Mn9.00% CuIDHA

ROLE OF BORON

Root elongation is usually the first effect of Boron deficiency in most plant species, but it is rarely seen in wheat, However, yield responses to Boron application have been reported in many countries and some parts of Australia.

Boron is required in plants for the translocation of sugar and starch from the leaves to the grain head and fruits. It is the reproductive phase that is the most sensitive to deficiency in wheat and this result in male sterility due to disrupted pollen formation. This causes a major reduction in the numbers of grain sets and, thus a reduction in yield. This condition can only be diagnosed by either soil or plant analysis or by yield responses to Boron fertilisation.

In addition to the wheat, other crops known to be relatively sensitive to Boron deficiency, such as oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, have been found to have a greater requirement for Boron during their reproductive phase than during their period of vegetative growth. Boron regulates flowering and fruiting, cell division, germination, carbohydrate metabolization.

ROLE OF CALCIUM

The functions of calcium in the plant are associated with membrane maintenance, cell division and elongation, cell wall strength and integrity, protecting cells from toxins, cation/anion balance, and osmoregulation.

Calcium deficiency in seedlings can result in cotyledons becoming, chlorotic turning muddy yellow instead of bright yellow is seen with nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency.

Symptoms of calcium deficiency appear on new shoots and new leaves.

Calcium required boron so that calcium can perform the regular metabolic chore. It is involved in the deposition of Calcium in new cell material and in the growing tip of the pollen tube.

Role of Magnesium

Magnesium is essential for the formation of chlorophyll and is the only mineral constituent of the chlorophyll molecule.

One of the symptoms of Mg deficiency is a pale green or yellow leaf. Magnesium has a key role in phosphorus transportation.

Magnesium is involved in regulating cellular pH by moderating the cation/anion balance and carbohydrate partitioning.

Boron deficiency in soils reduces plant uptake of both magnesium and calcium.

BORON Treatments
Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Momentum B12% BCPPA
Momentum ZBM Trio0.15% Mg, 5.30% B, 5.01% Zn, 0.24% MoCPPA
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus BZnMo12-17-0 + 0.49% B, 2.10% Zn, 0.40% MoCPPA
CALCIUM Treatments
Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Dual Force Ca7.20% CaIDHA
Momentum Cal Bor3.02% Ca, 3.06% BCPPA
Transit Calcium3-0-0 + 16.20% CaAmino Acid + CPPA
Crystal Cal N B12-0-0 + 17.80% Ca, 0.20% BCPPA
Magnesium Treatments
Product NameNPK (W/V %)Patented Organic Activators
Dual Force Mg4.50% MgIDHA
Transit Magnesium (SP)4-0-0 + 12% MgAmino Acid + CPPA
Crystal N MCB12-0-0 + 12% Ca, 4% Mg, 0.2% BCPPA

Product Application Rates

Core ProductsWhatWhereRate
Momentum ZnP Highly available Zn and P Seed treatment and foliar application. Helps establishment and root development 3-5 L/tonne for seed treatment 2-5 L/ha foliar application 5-15 L/ha soil Injection
Amino Boost Transit Max Plant-derived Amino Acids, Kelp, Fulvic acids, and CPPA-patented organic Activator Seed treatment, at the early establishment and root development 5 L/Ha
Transit Re-leaf Plant-derived Amino Acids, Fulvic acids, and CPPA-patented organic activator Seed treatment, at the early establishment and root development 1 L/ha
Dual Grow 8-15-3 +TE 8-15-3 + 1% Ca, 2% Zn+ 0.1% B, 0.1% Mo +0.05% Co + Organic Activators Soil injection 10-30 L/ha
Dual Grow FreeFos 10-15-0 + 0.92% Zn + Kelp Soil injection 10-30 L/ha
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus B-Zn-Mo 12-17-0 + 0.49% B, 2.10% Zn, 0.40% Mo Soil injection 10-30 L/ha
Dual Grow 12-17-0 Plus Co-Mo-B 12-17-0 +2.79%B, 0.02% Co + 0.04% Mo Soil injection 10-30 L/ha
Activated N 41-0-0 + 0.05% Zn + EDDHSA Fe In crop streaming 50-150lts/ha
Activated N 41-0-0 + 0.05% Zn + EDDHSA Fe Early establishment followed by 1-2 applications if required 20-25 L/Ha
Dual Force Zn IDHA Zn 10.00% Early establishment 0.25-2 Kg/ha
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